Electronic Devices and Myopic Refraction Among Children Aged 6-14 Years in Urban Areas of Tianjin, China

  • The purpose of this study is to assess associations between different types of electronic devices, myopic refraction and ocular biometric parameters in children aged 6-14 years in urban areas of Tianjin, China.

  • A school-based, cross-sectional study was performed on 566 children (302 boys and 264 girls).

  • The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination, including cycloplegic auto-refraction and ocular biometry.

  • On average, a more myopic spherical equivalent refraction and longer axial length were both associated with more time spent using smart phones and computers, but not with time spent using tablets and watching television.

  • The magnitude of the association between spherical equivalent refraction and time spent reading and writing was a substantially larger than that for smart phone or computer use.

  • Different types of electronic devices had differing levels of association with myopic refraction.

Publication date

March 22, 2021


Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics


Shengxin Liu, Sheng Ye, Wei Xi, Xin Zhang
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