Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalence of Refractive Errors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • The aim of the study was a systematic review of refractive errors across the world according to the WHO regions.

  • Refractive errors are the most common ocular problem affecting all age groups. They are considered a public health challenge.

  • Recent studies and WHO reports indicate that refractive errors are the first cause of visual impairment and the second cause of visual loss worldwide as 43% of visual impairments are attributed to refractive errors.

  • This report showed that astigmatism was the most common refractive errors in children and adults followed by hyperopia and myopia.

  • The highest prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was seen in South-East Asian adults.

  • The highest prevalence of hyperopia in children and adults was seen in the Americas.

  • A direct correlation was found between the prevalence of myopia and astigmatism in most WHO regions. The trend of myopia has increased linearly in the past three decades, maybe as a result of increased indoor activity due to computerization in recent years.

Publication date

December 10, 2018


Journal of Current Ophthalmology

Sponsor Institution

Iranian Society of Ophthalmology


Hassan Hashemi, Akbar Fotouhi, Abbasali Yekta, Reza Pakzad, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
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