Prevalence of Refractive Error, Presbyopia, and Spectacle Coverage in Bogotá, Colombia: A Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error

  • The purpose of this study was to determine the current prevalence of refractive error, presbyopia, spectacle coverage, barriers to uptake refractive services, and spectacle correction in people 15 years and older in Bogotá, Colombia.

  • A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted using 50 randomly selected clusters from 10 districts of Bogotá reflecting the socioeconomic status of the city.

  • Respondents within the age range of 15 to 96 years were interviewed (2886 total eligible) and underwent standardized clinical eye examinations.

  • Age- and sex-standardized prevalence of visual impairment was 19.3%.

  • Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia was 12.5% and 55.2% respectively.

  • Spectacle coverage was 50.9% for distance vision, and it was 33.9% for presbyopia.

  • Main barrier to spectacle uptake was a limitation in affording spectacles because of economic factors (29.5%).

  • The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia was high, and the barriers to spectacle uptake were higher in the lowest socioeconomic strata.

  • The results obtained in the present study will help in making evidence-based decisions related to eye care service delivery in Colombia.

Publication date

July 19, 2019


Optometry and Vision Science, Journal of the American Academy of Optometry


Luisa Casas Luque, Kovin Naidoo, Ving Fai Chan, Juan Carlos Silva, Thomas John Naduvilath, Fernando Peña, Myriam Mayorga, and Leonardo Ramírez
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