Spectacle compliance among school children in Malawi, Nigeria and Pakistan

  • This was a longitudinal, observational study, conducted in Malawi, Nigeria and Pakistan, designed to determine:

  • The prevalence of vision impairment and uncorrected refractive error among schoolchildren.

  • Spectacle compliance at three months among school going children with significant refractive error.

  • Identify barriers to spectacle compliance in school going children.

  • The prevalence of vision impairment due to refractive error was highest in Nigeria followed by Pakistan then Malawi.

  • Recommendations in policy, service delivery infrastructure including HMIS, human resources and advocacy are included in the report.

Publication date

August 19, 2019


The WorldBank Group

Sponsor Institution

The World Bank and the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)


Brien Holden Vision Institute
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