Advances in myopia prevention strategies for school-aged children: a comprehensive review
Myopia, a prevalent vision issue, has surged in East and Southeast Asia, causing myopic maculopathy and optic neuropathy, causing irreversible vision loss. To combat this, strategies involve encouraging outdoor activities, reducing near-work and screen time, and utilizing clinical methods like low-dose atropine eye drops, orthokeratology lenses, specialized soft contact lenses, and spectacles. Treatment depends on factors like age and ethnicity, with some facing challenges like side effects, cost, complexity, or limited effectiveness. Currently, low-dose atropine, soft contact lenses with myopia control features, and orthokeratology lenses are promising. Researchers explore combined interventions. The rise in myopia is linked to factors like increased education demands, less outdoor time, and limited sunlight exposure. High myopia, often from early onset, is associated with severe eye conditions. Preventing myopia and its complications is crucial, with strategies including behavioral changes and optical interventions. Reducing myopia by one diopter can significantly lower risk of myopic maculopathy. Ethnicity and location may affect prevalence, necessitating customized approaches. Strategies like outdoor activities and reduced screen time hold promise, as do clinical interventions, particularly atropine and orthokeratology. The right treatment choice depends on individual and regional factors, and ongoing research is vital for refining myopia management and promoting children's eye health.