Compliance and Predictors of Spectacle Wear in Schoolchildren and Reasons for Non-Wear: A Review of the Literature
Uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment in children, affecting children in all settings. The majority of refractive errors can be corrected with spectacles.
High compliance with spectacle wear is required for children to realize the benefit, such as higher academic achievement.
This review collates evidence on compliance with spectacle wear, factors which predict spectacle wear and reasons for non-compliance among schoolchildren.
Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Global Health and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to November 2017.
Twenty-five studies were included in the review.
Evidence suggests that greater severity of uncorrected refractive error and lower levels of uncorrected visual acuity are associated with higher levels of spectacle wear.
Addressing socio-demographic reasons for non-compliance is complex as they are context specific. Evidence that children become less compliant with spectacle wear with increasing age is not consistent.
Quantitative data indicate girls are more likely to be compliant with spectacles wear than boys, but qualitative studies highlight specific challenges faced by girls.
There was considerable variation between studies in how spectacle compliance was defined, the time interval between dispensing the spectacles and assessment, and how compliance was assessed.
There is need to standardize all aspects of the assessment of compliance.
Further qualitative and quantitative studies are required in a range of settings to assess the biomedical and socio-demographic factors which affect spectacle wear compliance using standard definitions.