Distribution of Refractive Errors in Spain

  • The aim of this work was to characterise the refractive state of a Spanish population.

  • Special attention to myopia prevalence was carried out. At this stage 7621 subjects, 3692 males and 3929 females, between 3 and 93 years were examined by means of static retinoscopy and subjective refraction.

  • The most prevalent was emmetropia with a mean percentage of 43.2% and ranging from 60.6% (3–8 years) to 29.0% (66–93 years).

  • The prevalence of hyperopia (35.6%) increased with age, from 36.9% (3–8 years) to 55.8% (66–93 years).

  • Myopia appeared to be more prevalent in the 30–35 age group (30.1%), agreeing with the more near-work demanding age range.

  • Mean refractive error obtained was +0.19±3.42 D, ranging from +0.05±3.18 D (20–35 years) to +0.96±2.42 (66–93 years).

  • Reading addition value obtained was similar to respective values of age of other populations.

  • The whole Spanish population evaluated was emmetrop.

  • No differences in prevalence from other populations were found, obtaining greater values of myopia in groups with more near work and a greater percentage of hyperopia versus age.

Publication date

July 25, 2019


Documenta Ophthalmologica


Robert Montés-MicóTeresa Ferrer-Blasco
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