Ethnic Disparity in Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Myopia in Adolescents
The study purpose is to examine ethnic disparity in prevalence and associated factors of myopia in adolescents using the Unites States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset.
Participants who were aged 12–19 years were included from NHANES (1999–2008). Logistic regression analyses were applied to identify risk factors associated with myopia after stratification by race.
A total of 9,960 participants were included in the prevalence analysis, and 6,571 in the risk factor analysis. Other race (excluded Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black) participants had the highest frequency of myopia (42.77%).
Multivariate analyses of the whole population suggested that the odds of myopia were significantly lower in participants with household smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.97), and significantly greater in Mexican American race (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01–1.62), other Hispanic (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10–2.92) and in participants with senior high school graduate education (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01–3.18), watched 2 hours of television daily (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02–1.59), used the computer for 1 hour daily (OR = 1.276, 95% CI: 1.02–1.57).
When examined by race/ethnicity, 1 hour of computer use increased the odds of myopia in the non-Hispanic White group, in Mexican Americans a higher family poverty income ratio and 2 hours of television time was associated with myopia, and in the Other Hispanic group, a higher family poverty income ratio was associated with myopia, while males and those with a higher sugar had a lower risk of myopia.
The study concluded that risk factors for myopia vary with race/ethnicity.