Global risk factor analysis of myopia onset in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The analysis and review aimed to comprehensively assess risk factors for childhood myopia using data from various sources, finding that multiple factors affect myopia onset in children. Genetic factors play a role, with children of myopic parents being at a higher risk. Gender differences were observed, with girls having a greater likelihood of developing myopia. Environmental factors were crucial, as more outdoor time and less near-work reduced the risk. Various eye indicators, such as spherical equivalent, axial length, and visual acuity, were linked to myopia onset. The burden of myopia was found to be higher in underprivileged countries, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions in such regions. It was also noted that the incidence of myopia can occur at any age, from early childhood to late adulthood. The study recommended strategies for myopia prevention based on these factors, including encouraging outdoor activities, adjusting close-up work time, and addressing genetic predispositions. The study acknowledged the moderate to low quality of evidence, suggesting the need for further research to develop effective preventive measures. In summary, the study identified a range of risk factors for childhood myopia, emphasizing the importance of tailored strategies to promote children's eye health.

Publication date

September 20, 2023



Sponsor Institution

National Ministry of Science & Technology, Shandong Science & Technology Department, Shandong Department of Finance and Shandong Health Commission


Mingkun Yu, Yuanyuan Hu, Mei Han, Jiawei Song, Ziyun Wu, Zihang Xu, Yi Liu, Zhen Shao, Guoyong Liu, Zhipeng Yang, Hongsheng Bi
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