National sex- and age-specific burden of blindness and vision impairment by cause in Mexico in 2019: a secondary analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Blindness and vision impairment are significant public health concerns, but a comprehensive analysis for Mexico has been lacking. This observational study aimed to describe the national burden of these conditions by cause and severity during 2019 using data from the Global Burden of Disease study. The estimated burden in Mexico during 2019 was 11.01 million prevalent cases and 384.96 thousand years lived with disability (YLDs). Uncorrected presbyopia accounted for the highest burden, affecting 6.06 million cases, while severe vision loss and blindness affected 619.40 thousand and 513.84 thousand people, respectively. Near vision loss and refraction disorders were the main causes of the cases (78.7%), while neonatal disorders and age-related macular degeneration were among the least frequent. Females and people over 50 years of age suffered the highest burden, with those between 70 and 74 years being the most affected. The study emphasizes that most of the visual impairment is avoidable, making a concerted effort necessary to reduce this burden, especially in developing countries where the majority of visually impaired people reside. Integrative national eye health plans should be designed to address the issue effectively. The study provides crucial data for developing population-specific health policies to alleviate vision loss in Mexico.