Parental Myopia, Near Work, School Achievement, and Children’s Refractive Error

  • The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of association between juvenile myopia and parental myopia, near work, and school achievement.

  • This was a longitudinal study conducted on 366 children from Orinda, United States.

  • Children with myopia were more likely to have parents with myopia, to spend significantly more time studying, and more time reading.

  • Children with myopia were also more likely to less time playing sports, and to score higher on the ITBS Reading and Total Language subtests than emmetropic children.

  • No substantial confounding effects between parental myopia, near work, sports activity, and school achievement.

  • No increase in the risk associated with near work with an increasing number of parents with myopia.

  • Heredity was the most important factor associated with juvenile myopia, with smaller independent contributions from more near work, higher school achievement, and less time in sports activity.

This article was identified as a reference for a VII-commissioned systematic review on the Impact of URE on Children.

Publication date

December 7, 2016


Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science


Mutti, D.O., Mitchell, G.L., Moeschberger, M.L., Jones, L.A. and Zadnik, K.
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