Pediatric Ophthalmology and Childhood Reading Difficulties: Overview of Reading Development and Assessments for the Pediatric Ophthalmologist

  • Reading difficulties are common in the pediatric population, and large socioeconomic disparities exist.

  • In the United States 46% of white children achieved expected reading proficiency by the end of fourth grade, while only 21% of Hispanic and 18% of African American children were reading at the expected level.

  • Reading is an involved cognitive process with many subskills; likewise, development of reading proficiency is a complex and continuous process.

  • Failure to achieve reading proficiency or even early difficulty with reading can affect a child’s academic performance for years to come. Some studies suggest reading proficiency may be related to later success in life.

  • Although many problems with reading are not related to vision, a vision assessment is recommended for children with reading difficulties and a suspected vision problem.

  • The process of reading development as well as the varied educational assessments of reading are presented here for pediatric ophthalmologists.

Publication date

September 10, 2018


Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (JAAPOS) , Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 433 - 436.e2


Collins, Megan E MD, MPH
Share this