Potential productivity loss from uncorrected and under-corrected presbyopia in low- and middle-income countries: A life table modeling study

This study estimates the burden of potential productivity losses due to uncorrected and under-corrected presbyopia in LMICs among the working-age population in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal manner.

We extracted data for the prevalence of presbyopia from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019. Data for the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita were extracted from the World Bank database and Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook.

In 2019, there were 238.40 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 150.92–346.78 million) uncorrected and under-corrected presbyopia cases in LMICs, resulting in 54.13 billion (current US dollars) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.34–79.02 billion) potential productivity losses. With simulated follow-up until retirement, those with uncorrected and under-corrected presbyopia were predicted to experience an additional loss of 155 million PALYs (an average loss of 0.7 PALYs per case), which was equivalent to a total loss of US$ 315 billion (an average loss of US$ 1453.72 per person).

The study suggests there is a great need for the development of enabling eye care policies and programs to create access to eye care services, and more healthcare investment in the correction of presbyopia in the working-age population in LMICs.

Publication date

October 12, 2022


Frontiers in Public Health


Qian Ma; Min Chen; Dehua Li; Ruiqing Zhou; Yali Du; Shengjie Yin; Binyao Chen; Hongxi Wang; Jiao Jiang; Zhiqiang Guan; Kunliang Qiu
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