Prevalence of Uncorrected Refractive Error and Its Risk Factors; Tehran Geriatric Eye Study (TGES)

The study aimed to determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors and its factors among individuals aged 60 and above in Tehran, Iran in 2019. They defined "need for spectacles" as having visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better eye, correctable to 20/40 or better with suitable spectacles. "Met need" was the proportion of those needing spectacles whose visual acuity was 20/40 or better with current spectacles, while "unmet need" referred to those needing spectacles but not having them or not achieving 20/40 with current ones. The findings revealed that 16.67% of the population needed spectacles, with 7.81% having their needs met, and 8.85% having unmet needs. Myopic individuals had the highest need for spectacles at 24.06%. Older individuals (80 years and above) were less likely to have their needs met but more likely to have unmet needs. Additionally, those with a university education had a higher likelihood of having their needs met and a lower likelihood of unmet needs. Compared to previous studies, this research found a lower prevalence of uncorrected refractive error.

Publication date

April 29, 2021


Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Sponsor Institution

National Institute for Medical Research Development (NIMAD) , Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education


Hassan Hashemi, Pooneh Malekifar Malekifar, Rama Pourmatin, Massomeh Sajadi, Mohamadreza Aghamirsalim, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
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