Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Myopic Macular Degeneration on Visual Impairment and Functioning Among Adults in Singapore
The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of myopic(MMD) on visual impairment and functioning among adults in Singapore.
A comprehensive eye examination, including subjective refraction, axial length, and visual acuity (VA) measurements, was performed in adults aged ≥40 years in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study using fundus photographs.
A total of 8716 phakic subjects were included in this analysis. The mean age (± SD) was 57.2 ± 9.5 years (33.5% Malays, 33.2% Indians, and 33.3% Chinese).
The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] ≤ −0.5 diopters [D]) and high myopia (SE ≤ −5.0 D) was 35.7% and 6.0%, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of MMD was 3.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–4.3%). The prevalence of MMD was 7.7% among low to moderate myopes, and 28.7% among high myopes.
The prevalence of MMD increased nonlinearly with SE and age. MMD was associated with older age, more myopic SE, and lower education. Subjects with Meta-PM categories 3 or 4 in the better-seeing eye had worse best-corrected VA (β, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.16–0.23) and poorer VSF (β, −9.7; 95%CI, −17.6 to −1.8) than those without MMD after multivariate adjustments.
Approximately 1 in 26 phakic adults in Singapore has MMD. Older age and myopic SE are major risk factors of MMD. Severe MMD has a substantial impact on visual impairment and functioning.