Preventing the Progression of Myopia in Children—A Review of the Past Decade
This review evaluates myopia prevention methods amid the increasing global incidence of myopia. It discusses defocus-incorporated multiple-segment spectacle lenses (DIMSsl), repeated low-level red-light therapy, and a combination of low-dose atropine with orthokeratology lenses. Myopia, associated with complications like staphyloma and retinal detachment, has prompted exploration of prevention strategies. Factors like parental myopia and genetic influences contribute to myopia, and outdoor time is considered protective. The review emphasizes the biochemical transformation of retinal image defocus in myopia pathomechanism, with axial length being a key parameter. Various interventions for myopia control include atropine, outdoor activities, and specialized lenses. DIMSsl aims to correct refractive errors while preventing myopia progression. Repeated low-level red-light therapy involves sessions with a red-light-emitting device. Orthokeratology and low-dose atropine separately slow myopia progression, with mechanisms not fully understood. The review notes challenges in comparing study results due to varied methodologies. It highlights the need for more specific age group assessments, standardized protocols, and double-blinding processes. Safety considerations, invasiveness, and time requirements differ among methods. While various options for myopia control are emerging, the paper stresses the importance of further evidence, long-term studies, diverse participant backgrounds, and understanding the mechanisms underlying each method for optimized and effective treatment approaches.