Relating Vision Status to Academic Achievement Among Year-2 School Children in Malaysia

  • The objective of this study is to establish the relationship between vision problems and academic performance. Vision affects daily activities, but of particular importance is the impact upon the learning process. Many studies have been conducted with varied results.

  • This study included 1,103 year-2 school children enrolled in 7 public schools in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. 

  • There were an equal proportion of males (50.6%) and females (49.4%). The testing battery was designed to assess visual acuity, ocular muscle balance, visual analysis skills, visual-spatial skills, and visual-motor integration skills.

  • Children with average and above-average achievement showed a different visual performance profile from those children with low academic achievement. 

  • They had a statistically significant better pass rate in physical aspects (visual acuity), physiological aspects (ocular motor balance), and perceptual aspects (visual-motor integration/visual-spatial and visual-analysis skills).

  • Children with low academic achievement are more likely to exhibit problems in visual acuity, ocular motor balance, visual-motor integration and most all components of visual analysis skills. 

  • This finding supports the concept that visual performance is key to learning and therefore of chief concern as to school achievement.

Publication date

July 7, 2021


Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association


Ai-Hong Chen, Willard Bleything, Yee-Yin Lim
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