The Association between Nearwork-Induced Transient Myopia and Progression of Refractive Error: A 3-Year Cohort Report from Beijing Myopia Progression Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error.
Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm).
There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction.
The annual refractive change was −0.45 (−0.73, −0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively).
The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01).
For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a −1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01).
No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders.
However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01).
NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes.