The Visual Screening of Adjudicated Adolescents

  • The purpose of this study was to determine particular visual factors that are most responsible for the learning difficulties of juvenile offenders.

  • This was a randomized control trial study of 50 adjudicated adolescents and 54 graduates.

  • 48% of juvenile offenders failed the tracking subtest, while all graduates students passed.

  • A greater number of juvenile offenders failed visual acuity-near, convergence, hyperopia, and colour vision.

  • 74% of juvenile offenders failed at least 1 NYSOA Battery subtest, compared to 59% of graduate students.

  • More graduate students failed visual acuity–far and fusion subset.

This article was identified as a reference for a VII-commissioned systematic review on the Impact of URE on Children.

Publication date

December 7, 2016


Journal of Behavioral Optometry


Johnson, R.A. and Zaba, J.N.
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